There are upwards of 3,000 species in the Rubiaceae family. The grass seeds readily and spreads on the wind from lawn to lawn. Cleavers (Galium aparine) has historically been used to treat nodular growths of the skin and mucous membranes that could be found on or under the skin.To explore the characteristics, medicinal uses and prescribing considerations of this herb in more detail, check out the references indicated. The methods on how to kill goosegrass range from cultural to herbicidal. Livestock Identify a weed; List of all weeds; Key to weeds in turf; Catchweed bedstraw is a winter or summer annual broadleaf plant. In the Pacific Northwest it is found in coniferous and deciduous forests, shrublands, and in grassland plant communities. Vaxtodling, 10:87-105. Description: Scrambling or twining annual; stems ± stout to 1.5 m long, with retrorse prickles mainly along the angles and long thin hairs at the nodes. Photo: Galium aparine, Cleavers. Cleavers are in the Rubiaceae family which consists of flowering plants in the coffee, madder, or bedstraw family. Flowers from May to August. Cleavers is found in southern Ontario in woods, meadows, compost heaps, gardens and fields, and along roadsides and riverbanks. There are a number of chemical control options for catchweed bedstraw. Life cycle: Annual. Compiled by Andrew Hulting, Oregon State University, and Marjolein Schat, Montana State University, from the following sources: Catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine) is an annual weed in the madder family (Rubiaceae) that is distributed worldwide. Galium Aparine as a Remedy for Chronic Ulcers. It is widespread in Auckland. For alfalfa grown for seed apply before bud formation. When mature, the fruit is brown and covered with the tiny hooks, … Separation and purification and in vitro anti-proliferative activity of leukemia cell K562 of Galium aparine L. petroleum ether phase. Cleavers was once used for bedding material - hence one of its nickname’s "bedstraw". This is the best Australian book on edible weeds that's currently in print that I know of. whorled 6 to 8 per node, linear to oblanceolate, sessile, bristle tip, margins entire, rough hairs on margins and underside midrib, hook-tipped hairs above. Catchweed bedstraw and related plants are increasing as problems in cropland in the Pacific Northwest. Leaves usually 3 to 8 in a whorl (b), linear, tapering at the base, mostly 1-8cm long, with bristles at the pointed tip (c), somewhat hairy on both surfaces and with many very short, backward-pointing bristles on the margins. The bristles on stems also allow stems to stick to animals, equipment and clothing. Inflorescence mostly 1- to 5-flowered. Effects of Galium aparine extract on the cell viability, cell cycle and cell death in breast cancer cell lines. Cleavers (Galium aparine) Cleavers' fruits have similar globose shape with a hole on the ventral side, grey-brown colour and white bristles. General Chapters Seeds are dispersed long distances because they stick to feathers, fur and clothing. No insect or disease biological control agents are known to impact this or related species. Northern Bedstraw is also the largest of the Galiums in Minnesota, the most common throughout the state, and the most prolific bloomer. Prev Next Pause Resume. Apply postemergence to actively growing wheat or barley from the 4-leaf to flag leaf emergence stage of growth and when weeds are less than 8 inches tall. In particular cleavers are in the bedstraw family. Plants can produce up to 100 to 400 seeds each. Apply post crop emergence to seedling to established alfalfa. Height: 1 ft - 3 ft; Life Cycle: annual; Growth Type: flower; Flower Size: minute; Flower Type: inconspicuous Aim of the study To investigate the potential anti-proliferative and apoptotic effect of GA methanol (MeOH) extract on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells … Roots can reach lengths of 2 to 2.5 inches by the time the first leaves appear. Seeds need vernalisation. Its host plant is the adventive weed, Cleaves or Goose grass, Cleavers, Galium aparine (Rubiaceae). Seeds germinate throughout the season. Apply when weeds are less than 4 inches tall. Preventing spread of catchweed bedstraw into cultivated areas is a key management strategy. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.04.007 Corpus ID: 3895826. Germination occurs mainly in Autumn. The Gallium gal mite, Cecidophyes rouhollahi (Acari: Eriophyidae) is an adventive species from Europe and was first found in New Zealand in June 2017. Apply postemergence from the 3-leaf stage through flag leaf emergence. The fruit surface is covered with hooked bristles that cling to animals and clothing. The flowers grow on short stalks in clusters that emerge from the axils of the leaf whorls. Specific Chapters weedinfo.ca was designed to be an ever-growing knowledge base of weed information. Consult herbicide labels for additional rate, application, and safety information. Galium aparine Goose grass. The leaves are simple, narrowly oblanceolate to linear, and borne in whorls of six to eight. Cleavers (Galium aparine) Cleavers are a similar size, a similar globose shape and bristles with an inflated base that appear similar to the rough surface of warty bedstraw. Portion of stem enlarged to show the backward pointing bristles (a). This website uses a cookie to track whether you choose to see the weeds in order by scientific name or common name. The information herein is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and that listing of commercial products, necessary to this guide, implies no endorsement by the authors or the Extension Services of Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming or Montana. Biological Control of Arthropod Pests Apply to seedling alfalfa in the second trifoliate stage. The cotyledons are smooth, lack hairs, and range in length from 1/2 to one inch. Available: This page was last modified 19:21, 28 March 2016 by. Cultivation can be used to control small catchweed bedstraw plants after they emerge. These tiny hook-like bristles on stems and leaves cause them to cling together in masses and to cling to clothing, skin or fur, hence the common name, "cleavers.". Dormancy is released again during late-summer and early autumn. The primary problem is not competition resulting in reduced yield of various crops, but difficulty in harvesting when catchweed bedstraw becomes tangled with the crop or equipment. Cookies. As typical for climbing species, shoots of G. aparine lose mechanical self-stability during growth and use adjacent plants as support for further elongation growth [3,4]. The moisture regime and amount of light were unimportant for the timing of flowering. The Weed Forager’s Handbook, Adam Grubb and Annie Raser-Rowland. Catchweed bedstraw is also called goose-grass, sticky-willy, and cleavers. Galium aparine Common name: cleavers; catchweed bedstraw: Family: rubiaceae: Life cycle: annual : Light: sun-shade: We only have this in significant numbers on the back yard island hill, where I once let it grow, not knowing what it was until it was too late to prevent reseeding. Recommended Reading. It is distinguished by its square, weak, clinging stems, its bristle-tipped leaves that also cling with backward-pointing bristles on the margins, and all leaves arranged in whorls of 3 to 8 at each node of the stem. Mature catchweed bedstraw has stems up to 6 feet long that are square in profile, especially near the tips. Once seeds germinate, catchweed bedstraw develops rapidly. Tiny greenish-white flowers are borne in branching clusters from May to August and develop into round, green or purple fruits 3-5mm in … Group 14 (PPO inhibitor) + Group 4 (synthetic auxins), Group 4 (synthetic auxins) + Group 6 (photosystem II inhibitor). Pesticides must be applied legally complying with all label directions and precautions on the pesticide container and any supplemental labeling and rules of state and federal pesticide regulatory agencies. The bedstraw fruit develops as two round segments. Dispersal: The seeds are dispersed by water and by animals. Apply to 2-leaf grasses up to early boot stage. Apply to 5-leaf grasses up to early boot stage. Flowers can develop within 8 weeks of germination. Fluroxypyr, a flexible herbicide for control of Galium aparine in small grain cereals, an analysis of trial data collected in Germany during the 1984 and 1985 growing seasons. Flora 180:429–443 Google Scholar 2 . Galium aparine. School IPM. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. Leaf whorl with bristles (b) on the margins of each leaf and its pointed tip. Common bedstraw (Galium aparine) is an annual in the madder family (Rubiaceae). The attachment of G. aparine to the supporting structures in the surrounding vegetation is mainly provided by the leaves that are arranged in whorls of six (figure 1). High Plains IPMHPIPM Integrated Pest Management Flowers are white to greenish, tiny, and have four petals. Criticism of products or equipment not listed is neither implied nor intended. Cleavers have tubercles that are white and translucent rather than the opaque yellowish tubercles of warty bedstraw. IPM for Turfgrasses Galium aparine (GA) is a typical climbing plant growing widespread in Anatolia. Flora 180 : 429 – 443 Ba , FC , Zhao , Y ( 1997 ) Soil resources of tideland in China Chin J Soil Sci 28 : 49 – 51 [In Chinese] The flowers are very small and soon replaced by the small spherical fruits (d). Calibration The stems can reach up to three feet or longer, and are angular or square shaped. Currently, catchweed bedstraw doesn't cause enough economic loss to warrant a search for biological control agents. Galium aparine is a highly variable species owing to a combination of phenotypic plasticity and gene-cological variation. State rules and regulations and special pesticide use allowances may vary from state to state: contact your State Department of Agriculture for the rules, regulations and allowances applicable in your state and locality. The fruits are bristly, 1.5-4mm in diameter. Weak, sprawling stems, up to 1m (39in) long bear whorls of 6-8 long, slender green leaves with a prominent central vein. This mode of attachment is characteristic of the semi-self … The species has di•erent responses to the environment corresponding to dif-ferent environmentally conditioned life cycles [see VI (e)]; plasticity in the timing of seed germination, top Section 18 Exemptions Galium aparine. × The stems used to be fashioned into mat that would serve as a sieve, through which fresh milk could be filtered and infused with the health-giving properties of the plant. Lower and upper parts of a mature plant. Northern Bedstraw is most easily identified by the whorls of 4 long, narrow leaves and its smooth stem. Common bedstraw is a scrambing annual 4 to 40 inches tall with weak four sided stems that are sparsely branched. Catchweed bedstraw prefers shaded moist areas. Stems. Common bedstraw is also called goose-grass, sticky-willy, and cleavers. To support our efforts please browse our store (books with medicinal info, etc.). Catchweed bedstraw is a scrambling plant 4 to 40 inches tall with weak four sided stems and is sparsely branched. Protection of Pollinators native annual, reproducing by seed. Find answers to what is goosegrass and learn how to control it in order to grow a healthier lawn. Smooth bedstraw will not have bristles on its leaves. Catchweed bedstraw seeds can become heavily matted in sheep wool and lead to decreased wool values. Toggle navigation Group 2 (ALS inhibitor) + Group 4 (synthetic auxins). @article{Atmaca2016EffectsOG, title={Effects of Galium aparine extract on the cell viability, cell cycle and cell death in breast cancer cell lines. Stems have small clinging hooks enabling this species to climb up other plants and structures. Weed Links Do not apply more than 1 pint per acre on newly seeded crops. Bedstraw often forms dense, tangled mats that sprawl on the ground or over other vegetation. Cleavers are annuals with creeping straggling stems which branch and grow along the ground and over other plants. Stems weak or reclining, 10-121cm long, square in cross-section with strongly ribbed corners, with very short, downward- or backward-pointing, firm, hair-like and curved bristles (a). http://www.ipmimages.org/search/action.cfm?q=Galium%20aparine&Start=1&results=17, catchweed bedstraw, stickywilly, bedstraw, catchweed bedstraw, cleavers, cleaverwort, goose grass, scarthgrass, sticky-willy, white hedge, Examples of herbicides that can be used to manage catchweed bedstraw, http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GAAP2, http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/detail.asp?SpCode=GALAPA, http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/html/pnw/pnw388/, http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/galapa/all.html, http://www.ipmimages.org/search/action.cfm?q=Galium%20aparine&Start=1&results=17, http://wiki.bugwood.org/index.php?title=HPIPM:Catchweed_bedstraw&oldid=55529, Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health at the University of Georgia. Agronomic and Vegetable Crops Auge, H, Mahn, E (1988) On the plasticity of Galium aparine L population growth and biomass allocation during the summer annual life cycle. A. Goosegrass (Galium aparine) is an annual weed found in warm season turf grasses. Apply to actively growing weeds less than four inches tall and prior to jointing in wheat and barley. Apply to seedling grasses up to the jointing stage. The cotyledons (seed leaves) of bedstraw are oblong to egg shaped, with slightly notched tips. It is thought that Virgin Mary prepared the manger by making a bed of Cleavers in it for baby Jesus. Leaves form in whorls of usually 6 narrow leaflets. Emu Plains, NSW. Additional herbicide information can be found at http://www.greenbook.net. Insect Fact Sheets Effects of Galium aparine extract on the cell viability, cell cycle and cell death in breast cancer cell lines. Sjostedt S, 1959. Flowers form in clusters of 3-5 in leaf axils. Biological TypebroadleafCodeGALAPHabitatterrestrialLife Formannual Cleavers' fruits (diameter: 1.6 - 4.0 mm ) tend to be larger than false cleavers, the bristles have tuberculate bases, and the ventral hole tends to be round and deep. Apply postemergence in the spring from 3-leaf stage until jointing. B. It is also found in disturbed sites and crops including alfalfa, clover, grass grown for seed and small grains. Catchweed bedstraw reproduces only by seed. Combining biological and identifying characteristics of top interfering species along with new emerging research articles, media, and control options, weedinfo.ca provides the tools to make informed risk-reducing weed control decisions. Catchweed Bedstraw (Galium aparine) Click on images to enlarge . Longevity in the soil: Viability in soils is limited to 2 to 3 years. Posted by Bonehead (Planet Earth - Zone 8b) on Dec 7, 2013 10:19 AM. Pest Sampling and Management Tactics Field Records for Restricted Use Galium Species: aparine Family: Rubiaceae Life Cycle: Annual Recommended Propagation Strategy: Seed Country Or Region Of Origin: Northern Asia and Europe Climbing Method: Scrambler Edibility: Included as an edible weed; Whole Plant Traits: Plant Type: Annual Edible Weed Wildflower Habit/Form: Spreading Appendage: Prickles; Cultural Conditions: Light: It usually requires a disturbance to establish and is common in gardens, yards, orchards, crop fields, and other disturbed habitats. Stems weak or reclining, 10-121cm long, square in cross-section with strongly ribbed corners, with very short, downward- or backward-pointing, firm, hair-like and curved bristles (a). Catchweed Bedstraw blooms small, white flowers that have four petals with pointed tips, and the plant is in bloom for one to two months from late spring to mid-summer. Disease Management Identification and Life Cycle. Native in the Pacific Northwest and throughout North America. See label for grazing restrictions and tank mix information. Snel M, Scorer DJ, 1986. Organic Pesticides Nutrition had some influence on the timing of flowering, but day length and maximum temperature were the most important factors in … IPM for Woody Ornamentals Due to constantly changing labels, laws and regulations, the Extension Services can assume no liability for the suggested use of chemicals contained herein. Apply to actively growing weeds. Galium aparine L. APNI* . They attach themselves with the small hooked hairs which grow out of the stems and leaves. High Plains Integrated Pest Management The mite induces the leaf edges to roll inwards and the leaves to curl. For more information and images please visit IPM Bugwood: Found on beaches, in ditches and fields. Sprawling annual with hooked bristles that cling to clothes, hence the common name of cleavers. reclining-ascending to upright when young, sprawling habit, 4-sided, hollow, single row of downward-facing prickles on edges, many from base, branching. Auge H, Mahn E (1988) On the plasticity of Galium aparine L. population growth and biomass allocation during the summer annual life cycle. Apply postemergence in the fall or spring from 3-leaf stage until jointing. Germination biology of cleavers (Galium aparine L.). Catchweed bedstraw becomes established first in uncultivated areas such as fence rows, under trees, and in thickets bordering fields. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Small white flowers are produced in late May into June. Identification and Life Cycle Catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine) is an … Gucker, Corey L. 2005. Leaves. In established alfalfa apply before 3 inches of regrowth. 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Is the adventive weed, Cleaves or Goose grass, cleavers, Galium extract..., hence the common name alfalfa grown for seed and small grains clusters that emerge from 3-leaf! It in order to grow a healthier lawn control options for catchweed bedstraw becomes established first in uncultivated such. Ga ) is a scrambing annual 4 to 40 inches tall grasses to! Bedstraw '' Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory Producer... By making a bed of cleavers cleavers is found in coniferous and deciduous forests, shrublands and. Or spring from 3-leaf stage until jointing scrambing annual 4 to 40 inches tall in profile, near! To what is goosegrass and learn how to control small catchweed bedstraw is a highly species... Yellowish tubercles of warty bedstraw stick to feathers, fur and clothing seeds.... Leaf emergence tiny, and range in length from 1/2 to one inch aparine is a typical climbing growing! Into June very small and soon replaced by the time the first leaves appear was used... Scientific name or common name fields, and cleavers grassland plant communities cotyledons are smooth, hairs. Laboratory ( Producer ) 4 to 40 inches tall oblanceolate to linear, and in! Dispersed by galium aparine life cycle and by animals during late-summer and early autumn stems can reach up to three feet or,... Are known to impact this or related species of warty bedstraw found at http: //www.greenbook.net eight... Seedling grasses up to the jointing stage bud formation longer, and in grassland communities. Emergence to seedling alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest, yards, orchards, crop fields, and range in from! Grubb and Annie Raser-Rowland not have bristles on stems also allow stems to stick feathers... Page was last modified 19:21, 28 March 2016 by common bedstraw is also found in coniferous and deciduous,. 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